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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit)

Part Number E10854-01
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5 Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes how to complete postinstallation tasks after you have installed the software. It includes information about the following topics:

You must perform the tasks listed in the "Required Postinstallation Tasks" section. Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks listed in the "Recommended Postinstallation Tasks" section after all installations.

If you install and intend to use any of the products listed in the "Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks" section, then you must perform the tasks listed in the product-specific subsections.

Note:

This chapter describes basic configuration only. Refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems, Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and product-specific administration and tuning guides for more detailed configuration and tuning information.

See Also:

"Post-installation Database Configuration" section in Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide for information on postinstallation tasks for Oracle Configuration Manager

5.1 Required Postinstallation Tasks

Perform the task described in the following section after completing an installation.

5.1.1 Downloading and Installing Patches

Check the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site for required patches for the installation.

To download required patches:

  1. Use a Web browser to view the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site:

    http://metalink.oracle.com/
    
  2. Log in to My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink).

    Note:

    If you are not an My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) registered user, click Register here and follow the registration instructions.
  3. On the main My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) page, click Patches and Updates.

  4. Select Simple Search.

  5. Specify the following information, then click Go:

    • In the Search By field, choose Product or Family, then specify RDBMS Server.

    • In the Release field, specify the current release number.

    • In the Patch Type field, specify Patchset/Minipack.

    • In the Platform or Language field, select your platform.

  6. Find the latest patch set for Oracle Database using My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink).

  7. From the list of available patches, select a patch to download.

    Patch sets for Oracle databases are identified as x.x.x PATCH SET FOR ORACLE DATABASE SERVER.

  8. Review the README file before proceeding with the download.

    Each patch has a README file with installation requirements and instructions. Some patches install with Oracle Universal Installer; others require special procedures. Oracle recommends that you always read the README file before proceeding.

  9. Download and install the patch.

5.2 Recommended Postinstallation Tasks

Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks described in the following section after completing an installation:

5.2.1 Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script

Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing root.sh script during the installation. If you require information contained in the original root.sh script, then you can recover it from the backed up root.sh file.

5.2.2 Configuring New or Upgraded Databases

Oracle recommends that you run the utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a database. This script recompiles all PL/SQL modules that might be in an invalid state, including packages, procedures, and types. This is an optional step but Oracle recommends that you do it during installation and not at a later date.

See Also:

Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information about database upgrade

To run the utlrp.sql script, follow these steps:

  1. Switch user to oracle.

  2. Use the oraenv or coraenv script to set the environment for the database where you want to run the utlrp.sql script:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
      
    • C shell:

      % source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
      

    When prompted, specify the SID for the database.

  3. Start SQL*Plus, as follows:

    $ sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
    
  4. If necessary, start the database:

    SQL> STARTUP
    
  5. Run the utlrp.sql script:

    SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
    

5.2.3 Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts

If required, create additional operating system accounts. Users must be members of the OSDBA or OSOPER groups to connect to the database with administrator privileges.

5.2.3.1 Configuring the Accounts of Oracle Users

Update the startup files of the oracle user and the operating system accounts of Oracle users, specifying the appropriate environment variables in the environment file.

For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the environment variables to the .profile file, or the .bash_profile file for the Bash shell.

For the C shell, add the environment variables to the .login file.

Note:

You can use the oraenv or coraenv script to ensure that Oracle user accounts are updated.

5.2.4 Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable

NLS_LANG is an environment variable that specifies the locale behavior for Oracle software. This variable sets the language and territory used by the client application and the database server. It also declares the character set of the client, which is the character set of data entered or displayed by an Oracle client program, such as SQL*Plus.

See Also:

Appendix F, "Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support" for more information about the NLS_LANG environment variable

5.2.5 Generating the Client Static Library

The client static library (libclntst11.a) is not generated during installation. If you want to link the applications to the client static library, you must first generate it as follows:

  1. Switch user to oracle.

  2. Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the Oracle home directory used by the Oracle Database installation. For example:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1 
      $ export ORACLE_HOME
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
      
  3. Enter the following command:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/genclntst
    

5.2.6 Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group

During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an Oracle Database for a standalone server, then you should create the fast recovery area for database files.

5.2.6.1 About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group

The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related to recovery. Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter to the path for the fast recovery area to enable on-disk backups, and rapid recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.

When you enable fast recovery in the init.ora file, all RMAN backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies are written to the fast recovery area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by deleting obsolete backups and archive files no longer required for recovery.

Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage device contention.

The fast recovery area is enabled by setting DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. The size of the fast recovery area is set with DB _RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. As a general rule, the larger the fast recovery area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of use, Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group on storage devices that can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the fast recovery area should be large enough to hold a copy of all of your datafiles and control files, the online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover your database using the datafile backups kept under your retention policy.

Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you have created one fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by three different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database depending on the importance of each database. For example, if database1 is your least important database, database2 is of greater importance and database3 is of greatest importance, then you can set different DB_FILE_RECOVERY_DEST_SIZE settings for each database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for database1, 50GB for database2, and 70GB for database3.

5.2.6.2 Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group

To create a fast recovery file disk group:

  1. Navigate to the Grid home bin directory, and start ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA). For example:

    $ cd /u01/grid/bin
    $ ./asmca
    
  2. ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a new disk group.

  3. The Create Disk Groups window opens.

    In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area group. For example: FRA.

    In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.

    In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the fast recovery area, and click OK.

  4. The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is complete. Click OK.

  5. Click Exit.

5.3 Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks

The following sections describe platform-specific postinstallation tasks that you must perform if you install and intend to use the products mentioned:

Note:

You need only perform postinstallation tasks for products that you intend to use.

5.3.1 Configuring Oracle Net Services

If you have an earlier release of Oracle software installed on this system, you might want to copy information from the Oracle Net tnsnames.ora and listener.ora configuration files from the earlier release to the corresponding files for the new release.

The following sections describe about how to configure the Oracle Net Services:

Note:

The default location for the tnsnames.ora and listener.ora files is the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/ directory. However, you can also use a central location for these files.

Modifying the listener.ora File

If you are upgrading from a previous release of Oracle Database, Oracle recommends that you use the current release of Oracle Net listener instead of the listener from the previous release.

If you have referenced the previous Oracle home directory names in the static listener information, then these directory names must be modified before the listener.ora file can be used in the 11.2 environment.

To use the listener from the current release, you may need to copy static service information from the listener.ora file from the previous release to the version of that file used by the new release.

For any database instances earlier than release 8.0.3, add static service information to the listener.ora file. Oracle Database releases later than release 8.0.3 do not require static service information.

Modifying the tnsnames.ora File

Unless you are using a central tnsnames.ora file, copy Oracle Net service names and connect descriptors from the earlier release tnsnames.ora file to the version of that file used by the new release.

If necessary, you can also add connection information for additional database instances to the new file.

5.3.2 Configuring Oracle Label Security

If you installed Oracle Label Security, you must configure it in a database before you use it. You can configure Oracle Label Security in two ways; with Oracle Internet Directory integration and without Oracle Internet Directory integration. If you configure Oracle Label Security without Oracle Internet Directory integration, you cannot configure it to use Oracle Internet Directory at a later stage.

Note:

To configure Oracle Label Security with Oracle Internet Directory integration, Oracle Internet Directory must be installed in your environment and the Oracle database must be registered in the directory.

See Also:

Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle Label Security enabled with Oracle Internet Directory

5.3.3 Configuring Oracle Database Vault

If you have installed Oracle Database Vault, then you must register it in a database. Ensure that you create the Database Vault Owner and, optionally, Database Vault Account Manager administrative accounts before you can use it.

See Also:

Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more information on registering Oracle Database Vault

5.3.4 Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway

To configure Oracle Messaging Gateway, refer to the section about Messaging Gateway in Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing User's Guide. When following the instructions listed in that manual, refer to this section for additional instructions about configuring the listener.ora, tnsnames.ora, and mgw.ora files.

5.3.4.1 Modifying the listener.ora File for External Procedures

To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora file for external procedures:

  1. Back up the listener.ora file.

  2. Ensure that the default IPC protocol address for external procedures is set as follows:

    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC))
    
  3. Add static service information for a service called mgwextproc by adding lines similar to the following to the SID_LIST parameter for the listener in the listener.ora file:

    (SID_DESC =
        (SID_NAME = mgwextproc)
        (ENVS = "LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/oracle_home/jdk/jre/lib/i386:/oracle_home/jdk/jre/lib/i386/server:/oracle_home/lib")
        (ORACLE_HOME = oracle_home)
        (PROGRAM = extproc)
      )
    

    In this example:

    • The ENVS parameter defines the shared library path environment variable and any other required environment variables.

      In the settings for the shared library path environment variable, you must also add any additional library paths required for non-Oracle messaging systems, for example, WebSphere MQ or TIBCO Rendezvous.

    • oracle_home is the path of the Oracle home directory.

    • extproc is the external procedure agent executable file

      The following example shows a sample listener.ora file:

      SID_LIST_LISTENER =
        (SID_LIST =
          (SID_DESC =
            (SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
            (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1)
            (PROGRAM = extproc)
          )
          (SID_DESC =
            (SID_NAME = mgwextproc)
      (ENVS = "LD_LIBRARY_PATH =/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/jdk/jre/lib/i386:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/jdk/jre/lib/i386/server:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/lib")
             (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1)
             (PROGRAM = extproc)
          )
      )
      

5.3.4.2 Modifying the tnsnames.ora File for External Procedures

To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora file for external procedures:

  1. Back up the tnsnames.ora file.

  2. In the tnsnames.ora file, add a connect descriptor with the net service name MGW_AGENT, as follows:

    MGW_AGENT = 
    (DESCRIPTION= 
       (ADDRESS_LIST= (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC))) 
       (CONNECT_DATA= (SID=mgwextproc)))
    

    In this example:

    • The value specified for the KEY parameter must match the value specified for that parameter in the IPC protocol address in the listener.ora file.

    • The value of the SID parameter must match the service name in the listener.ora file that you specified for the Oracle Messaging Gateway external procedure agent in the previous section (mgwextproc).

5.3.4.3 Setting Up the mgw.ora Initialization File

To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/mgw/admin/mgw.ora file for external procedures, set the CLASSPATH environment variable to include the classes in the following table and any additional classes required for Oracle Messaging Gateway to access non-Oracle messaging systems, for example WebSphere MQ or TIBCO Rendezvous classes:

Classes Path
JRE runtime $ORACLE_HOME/jdk/jre/lib/
Oracle JDBC $ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib/ojdbc5.jar
Oracle internationalization $ORACLE_HOME/jlib/orai18n.jar
SQLJ $ORACLE_HOME/sqlj/lib/runtime12.jar
JMS Interface $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib/jmscommon.jar
Oracle JMS implementation $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib/aqapi.jar
Java Transaction API $ORACLE_HOME/jlib/jta.jar

Note:

All the lines in the mgw.ora file should consist of less than 1024 characters.

Note:

On AIX based systems, earlier versions of the IBM JRE shipped with a file called rt.jar in the jre/lib directory. Starting with Java 1.4, this file has been replaced by multiple JAR files that reside in the jre/lib directory. For more information visit the following URL:

http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/jdk/aix/142/sdkguide.aix32.html#wq6

5.3.5 Configuring Oracle Precompilers

This section describes postinstallation tasks for Oracle precompilers:

Note:

All precompiler configuration files are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin directory.

5.3.5.1 Configuring Pro*C/C++

Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains the C compiler executable.

Table 5-1 shows the default directories and the appropriate command to verify the path setting of the compiler.

Table 5-1 C/C++ Compiler Directory

Path Command

/usr/vac/bin

$ which xlc

/usr/vacpp/bin

$ which xlc


5.3.5.2 Configuring Pro*FORTRAN

Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains the FORTRAN compiler executable. You can verify the path setting by using the which xlf command. The path for the FORTRAN executable is /usr/bin.

5.3.6 Configuring Secure Sockets Layer

Oracle highly recommends you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to ensure that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in HTTP requests.

See Also:

5.3.7 Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases

An Oracle Text knowledge base is a hierarchical tree of concepts used for theme indexing, ABOUT queries, and deriving themes for document services. If you plan to use any of these Oracle Text features, then you can install two supplied knowledge bases (English and French).

See Also:

5.3.8 Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB

Refer to Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the following tasks:

  • Reinstalling Oracle XML DB

  • Configuring or customizing the Oracle XML DB tablespace

  • Configuring FTP, HTTP/WebDAV port numbers

See Also:

Appendix A of Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide

5.3.9 Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client

Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the first time. Before using individual Oracle products or options, refer to the appropriate manual in the product documentation library.

5.3.9.1 Direct NFS Client

With Oracle Database 11g, instead of using the operating system kernel NFS client, you can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using an Oracle internal Direct NFS client. If Oracle Database is unable to open an NFS server using Direct NFS, then Oracle Database uses the platform operating system kernel NFS client. In this case, the kernel NFS mount options must be set up as defined in "Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters". Additionally, an informational message will be logged into the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS could not be established.

The Oracle files resident on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client are also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual considerations for maintaining integrity of the Oracle files apply in this situation.

Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS to operate. To disable reserved port checking, consult your NFS file server documentation.

Direct NFS can use up to four network paths defined for an NFS server. The Direct NFS client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails, then Direct NFS reissues I/O commands over any remaining paths.

The following sections elaborate on enabling, disabling, checking the buffer size for a Direct NFS Client:

5.3.9.1.1 Enabling Direct NFS Client

By default Direct NFS will attempt to serve mount entries found in /etc/mtab. No other configuration is required. You can use oranfstab to specify additional Oracle specific options to Direct NFS. For example, you can use oranfstab to specify additional paths for a mount point.

A new Oracle specific file oranfstab can be added to either /etc or to $ORACLE_HOME/dbs. When oranfstab is placed in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs, its entries are specific to a single database. However, when oranfstab is placed in /etc, then it is global to all Oracle databases, and hence can contain mount points for all Oracle databases.

Note:

Direct NFS will not work and fall back to traditional kernel NFS path if the backend NFS server does not support a write size (wtmax) of 32768 or larger.

Direct NFS determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on the configurations in /etc/mtab. Direct NFS looks for the mount point entries in the following order:

  1. $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab

  2. /etc/oranfstab

  3. /etc/mtab

It uses the first matched entry as the mount point.

In all cases, Oracle requires that mount points be mounted by the kernel NFS system even when being served through Direct NFS.

Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS:

  1. You can optionally create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server to be accessed using Direct NFS:

    • Server: The NFS server name.

    • Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP address, or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the filer.

    • Local: Up to four local paths on the database host, specified by IP address or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database host.

    • Export: The exported path from the NFS server.

    • Mount: The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.

    • Dontroute: Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the operating system, but sent using the IP address they are bound to.

    • mnt_timeout: Specifies (in seconds) the time for which Direct NFS client should wait for a successful mount before timing out. This parameter is optional and the default timeout is 10 minutes.

    Note:

    The parameters local and dontroute are available from patchset 11.1.0.7 onwards.

    The following is an example of an oranfstab file with two NFS server entries:

    server: MyDataServer1
    local: 145.34.45.12
    path: 132.34.35.12
    local: 132.34.45.13
    path: 132.34.35.13
    dontroute
    export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
    
    server: MyDataServer2
    local: LocalPath1
    path: NfsPath1
    local: LocalPath2
    path: NfsPath2
    local: LocalPath3
    path: NfsPath3
    local: LocalPath4
    path: NfsPath4
    dontroute
    export: /vol/oradata2 mount: /mnt/oradata2
    export: /vol/oradata3 mount: /mnt/oradata3
    export: /vol/oradata4 mount: /mnt/oradata4
    export: /vol/oradata5 mount: /mnt/oradata5
    
  2. Oracle Database uses an ODM library, libnfsodm11.so, to enable Direct NFS. To replace the standard ODM library, $ORACLE_HOME/lib/libodm11.so, with the ODM NFS library, libnfsodm11.so, complete the following steps:

    • Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/lib.

    • Enter the following commands:

      cp libodm11.so libodm11.so_stub
      ln -s libnfsodm11.so libodm11.so
      
5.3.9.1.2 Disabling Direct NFS Client

Use one of the following methods to disable the Direct NFS client:

  • Remove the oranfstab file.

  • Restore the stub libodm11.so file by reversing the process you completed in Enabling Direct NFS Client.

  • Remove the specific NFS server or export paths in the oranfstab file.

Note:

If you remove an NFS path that Oracle Database is using, then you must restart the database for the change to be effective.
5.3.9.1.3 Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters

If you are using NFS, then you must set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to at least 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value 32768.

Direct NFS will issue writes at wtmax granularity to the NFS server.

For example, if you decide to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value 32768, then update the /etc/filesystems file on each node with an entry similar to the following:

/NFS_mount:
dev = "/NFS_mount"
vfs = nfs
nodename = NFS_server
mount = true
options = bg,soft,intr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768
account = false

Note:

Refer to your storage vendor documentation for additional information about mount options.