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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit)

Part Number E10854-01
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4 Installing Oracle Database

The Oracle Database software is available on installation media or you can download it from the Oracle Technology Network Web site. In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal Installer to install the software. However, you can also use Oracle Universal Installer to complete silent-mode installations, without using the GUI.

See Also:

Appendix A for information about silent-mode installations

4.1 Preinstallation Considerations

After reviewing the information in Chapter 1, " Overview of Oracle Database Installation" and completing the tasks listed in Chapter 2, " Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements", consider the following case.

4.1.1 Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Response File or Silent Mode

If you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database, you may want to use silent or response file mode. In response file mode, at each node, you run Oracle Universal Installer from the command line using a response file. The response file is a text file containing the settings you normally enter in the Oracle Universal Installer GUI dialog boxes.

See Also:

Appendix A for information about silent mode installations

4.2 Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines

Review the following guidelines before starting Oracle Universal Installer:

4.2.1 Selecting the Database Character Set

Oracle Database uses the database character set for:

  • Data stored in SQL character datatypes (CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, and LONG).

  • Identifiers such as table names, column names, and PL/SQL variables.

  • Stored SQL and PL/SQL source code, including text literals embedded in this code.

Once a database is created, changing its character set is usually very expensive in terms of time and resources. Such operation may require converting all character data by exporting the whole database and importing it back. Therefore, it is important that you carefully select the database character set already at installation time.

Oracle recommends Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set. Unicode is the universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the world. It also supports many historical scripts (alphabets). Unicode is the native encoding of many technologies, including Java, XML, XHTML, ECMAScript, and LDAP. Unicode is ideally suited for databases supporting the Internet and the global economy.

As AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data may be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most languages that use characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8 compared to legacy character sets supporting the language. Note that the increase in storage space concerns only character data and only data that is not in English. The universality and flexibility of Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.

Legacy character sets should be considered when compatibility, storage requirements, or performance of text processing is critical and the database will ever support only a single group of languages. The database character set to be selected in such case is the character set of most clients connecting to this database.

The default character set suggested or used by Oracle Universal Installer and Database Configuration Assistant in this release is based on the language configuration of the operating system.

For most languages, the default character set is one of the Microsoft Windows character sets, for example WE8MSWIN1252, even though the database is not installed on Windows. This results from the assumption that most clients connecting to the database run under the Microsoft Windows operating system. As the database should be able to store all characters coming from the clients and Microsoft Windows character sets have richer character repertoire than the corresponding ISO 8859 character sets, the Microsoft Windows character sets are usually the better choice. For example, the EE8MSWIN1250 character set supports the Euro currency symbol and various smart quote characters, while the corresponding EE8ISO8859P2 character set does not support them. In any case, Oracle converts the data between the database character set and the client character sets, which are declared by the NLS_LANG settings.

The list of database character sets that is presented to you for selection by Oracle Universal Installer contains only the recommended character sets. Even though Oracle Database supports many more character sets, they are either deprecated or they are binary subsets of another recommended character set. For example, WE8DEC is a deprecated character set and US7ASCII and WE8ISO8859P1 are both binary subsets of WE8MSWIN1252.

If, for compatibility reasons, you must create a database in one of the non-recommended character sets, choose the Advanced database configuration option. Database Configuration Assistant in the interactive mode will give you the opportunity to select any of the database character sets supported on AIX.

4.3 Accessing the Installation Software

The Oracle Database software is available on installation media or you can download it from the Oracle Technology Network Web site, or Oracle E-Delivery Web site. To install the software from the hard disk, you must either download it and unpack it, or copy it from the installation media, if you have it.

You can access and install Oracle Database by using one of the following methods:

4.3.1 Downloading Oracle Software

You can download the trial version of the installation files from the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) or Oracle E-Delivery Web site and extract them on your hard disk. Make sure that you completely review and understand the terms of the license. Most downloads include the development license. This section contains the following topics:

4.3.1.1 Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN

To download the installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network:

  1. Use any browser to access the software download page from Oracle Technology Network:

    http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/
    
  2. Navigate to the download page for the product that you want to install.

  3. On the download page, identify the required disk space by adding the file sizes for each required file.

    The file sizes are listed next to the file names.

  4. Select a file system with enough free space to store and expand the archive files.

    In most cases, the available disk space must be at least twice the size of all of the archive files.

  5. On the file system that you selected in step 4, create a parent directory for each product, for example OraDB11g, to hold the installation directories.

  6. Download all of the installation archive files to the directory that you created in step 5.

  7. Verify that the files you downloaded are the same size as the corresponding files on Oracle Technology Network.

  8. Extract the files in each directory that you just created.

  9. After you have extracted the required installation files, refer to "Installing the Oracle Database Software" .

4.3.1.2 Downloading the Software from Oracle E-Delivery

You can download the software from Oracle E-Delivery as Media Packs. A Media Pack is an electronic version of the software that is also available to Oracle customers on CD-ROM or DVD. To download the Media Pack:

  1. Use any browser to access the Oracle E-Delivery Web site:

    http://edelivery.oracle.com/
    
  2. Complete the Export Validation process by entering information (name, company, e-mail address, and country) in the online form.

  3. In the Media Pack Search page, specify the Product Pack and Platform to identify the Media Pack you want to download. If you do not know the name of the Product Pack, you can search for it using the License List.

  4. In the search results page, click Readme to download and review the Readme file for download instructions and product information.

  5. After you review the Readme, choose the appropriate Media Pack from the search results to download the individual zip files. Follow the Download Notes instructions in this page. Once you download and extract the contents of the required zip files, proceed with the installation of the software.

    Note:

    Print the page with the list of downloadable files. It contains a list of part numbers and their corresponding descriptions that you may need to reference during the installation process.

See Also:

Frequently Asked Questions section on the Oracle E-Delivery Web site for more information about Media Packs

4.3.1.3 Extracting the Installation Files

To extract the installation archive files, perform the following steps:

  1. If necessary, change to the directory that contains the downloaded installation archive files.

  2. If the downloaded file has the zip extension, use the following command to extract the content:

    unzip file_name.zip
    

    If the downloaded file has the cpio.gz extension, use the following command:

    $ gunzip filename.cpio.gz
    

    This command creates files with names similar to the following:

    filename.cpio
    

    To extract the installation files, enter a command similar to the following:

    $ cpio -idcmv < filename.cpio
    

    Note:

    Refer to the download page for information about the correct options to use with the cpio command.

    Some browsers uncompress files while downloading them, but leave the .gz file extension.

    For each file, this command creates a subdirectory named Diskn, where n is the disk number identified in the file name.

When you have extracted all of the required installation files, refer to the "Installing the Oracle Database Software" section.

4.3.2 Copying the Software to the Hard Disk

Before installing Oracle Database, you might want to copy the software to the hard disk. This enables the installation process to run a bit faster. Before copying the installation media content to the hard disk, you must mount the disk. The following sections describe how to mount the disk and copy its content to the hard disk.

4.3.2.1 Mounting Disks

On most AIX systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert it into the disc drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to mount it:

  1. Switch user to root:

    $ sudo - root
    
  2. If necessary, enter a command similar to following to unmount the currently mounted disc, then remove it from the drive:

    # umount /dvd
    

    In this example, /dvd is the mount point directory for the disc drive.

  3. Insert the appropriate disc into the disc drive, then enter a command similar to the following to mount it:

    # /usr/sbin/mount -rv cdrfs /dev/cd0 /dvd
    

    In this example, /dev/cd0 is the device name of the disc drive and /dvd is the mount point directory.

  4. If Oracle Universal Installer displays the Disk Location dialog box, enter the disc mount point directory path, for example:

    /dvd
    

To continue, go to one of the following sections:

4.3.2.2 Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk

Note:

If the system does not have a installation media, you can copy the software from the disk to a file system on another system, then either mount that file system using NFS, or use FTP to copy the files to the system where you want to install the software.

To copy the contents of the installation media to a hard disk:

  1. Create a directory on the hard disk to hold the Oracle software:

    $ mkdir OraDb11g
    
  2. Change directory to the directory you created in step 1:

    $ cd OraDb11g
    
  3. Mount the disk, if it is not already mounted.

    Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert it into the drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, refer to "Mounting Disks" section for platform-specific information about mounting it.

  4. Copy the contents of the mounted disk to the corresponding new subdirectory as follows:

    $ cp -R /directory_path OraDb11g
    

    In this example, /directory_path is the disk mount point directory.

  5. If necessary, mount the next disk and repeat step 4.

4.4 Database Security Options

During installation, you are prompted to select a database security configuration. The Secure Configuration option configures the database with database auditing options, and password policy and expiration settings.

For new database installations, the default configuration for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) includes the Secure Configuration option. If you want to disable these enhanced security controls, then you can uncheck the Assert all new security settings check box in the Specify Configuration Option screen that appears during installation. Oracle Database is then installed with default options for Oracle Database 10g Release 2. You can enable or disable auditing or password security settings, or revert to a previous security setting. After installation, you can enable or disable the security configuration by starting Database Configuration Assistant through the command line interface. Perform the following:

To Enable Security Configuration:

dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB SID -disableSecurityConfiguration NONE -enableSecurityConfiguration true

To Disable Security Configuration:

dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB SID -disableSecurityConfiguration [ALL|PASSWORD_PROFILE] -enableSecurityConfiguration false

Where SID is the system identifier.

For database upgrades, the upgraded database retains your existing database security configuration, to ensure compatibility with existing applications.

Note:

  • Oracle strongly recommends configuring your database with the Secure Configuration option either during installation, or after installation using Database Configuration Assistant.

  • Database Vault is an enhanced Security feature. If it is installed with the database, then you cannot change the Secure Configuration using Database Configuration Assistant option.

4.5 Installing the Oracle Database Software

In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database. The instructions in this section explain how to run the Oracle Universal Installer GUI to perform most database installations.

See Also:

  • If you plan to use Oracle Restart or Automatic Storage Management, you must install the grid infrastructure before you install the database. For information on installing grid infrastructure refer to "Installing and Configuring Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server"

  • You may need to shut down existing Oracle processes before you start the database installation. Refer to "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" for more information.

  • Appendix A if you want to install Oracle Database by using the silent or response file installation method, without the GUI. This method is useful if you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database. This appendix covers other advanced installation topics as well.

4.5.1 Running Oracle Universal Installer

For any type of installation process, start Oracle Universal Installer and install the software, as follows:

  1. Log on as the Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle) to the computer on which you want to install Oracle components.

  2. If you are installing the software from installation media, mount the disk if it is not already mounted.

    If the disk does not mount automatically, refer to "Mounting Disks" section for platform-specific information about mounting it.

    Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert the installation media into the drive.

  3. To start Oracle Universal Installer, complete one of the following steps depending on the location of the installation files:

    Note:

    Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session where you logged in as the oracle user and set the user's environment.

    See Also:

    "Configuring the oracle User's Environment" for information about setting the oracle user's environment
    • If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the following, where directory_path is the path of the database directory on the installation media:

      $ /directory_path/runInstaller
      
    • If the installation files are on the hard disk, change directory to the database directory and enter the following command:

      $ ./runInstaller
      

    If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, refer to "X Window Display Errors" and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" for information about troubleshooting.

  4. Use the following guidelines to complete the installation:

    • Do not install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software into an existing Oracle home.

    • Follow the instructions displayed on the Oracle Universal Installer screens. If you need additional information, click Help.

      See Also:

      "Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" for details on password guidelines
    • Do not modify the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) except by using a patch provided by Oracle Support Services. Oracle Universal Installer automatically installs the Oracle-supplied version of the JRE. This version is required to run Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants.

    • If errors are displayed while installing the software, refer to Appendix G for information about troubleshooting.

    • If you chose an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and Oracle Net Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, then you must provide detailed information about configuring the database and network.

      If you need assistance when using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant or Oracle Net Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, click Help on any screen.

      Note:

      If you chose a default installation, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and Oracle Net Configuration Assistant do not run interactively.
  5. When the configuration assistant tasks are complete click finish, click Exit, then click Yes to exit from Oracle Universal Installer.

  6. When Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run a script with root privileges, enter a command similar to the following in a terminal where you are logged in as the root user, then click Continue or OK:

    # /script_path/script_name
    
  7. See Chapter 5 for information about tasks that you must complete after you have installed Oracle Database.

The following table lists the various screens displayed during an Enterprise Edition installation for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):

Screen Action
Configure Security Updates Enter your e-mail address, preferably your My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) e-mail address or user name in the Email field.

You can select the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle Support check box to receive security updates.

Enter your My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) password in the My Oracle Support Password field.

Click Next.

Select Installation Option Select one of the following install options, then click Next:
  • Create and Configure a Database: This option creates a new database along with sample schemas.

  • Install Database Software Only: This option only installs the database binaries. To configure database, you must run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the software installation.

  • Upgrade an Existing Database: This option installs the software binaries in a new Oracle home. At the end of the installation, you can upgrade the existing database.

System Class Select the type of system for installing the database, click Next.
  • Desktop Class: Choose this option if you are installing on a laptop or desktop class system. This option includes a starter database and allows minimal configuration. This option is designed for those who want to get up and running with the database quickly.

    See Also: "Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable"

  • Server Class: Choose this option if you are installing on a server class system, such as what you would use when deploying Oracle in a production data center. This option allows for more advanced configuration options. Advanced configuration options available using this option include Oracle RAC, Automatic Storage Management, backup and recovery configuration, integration with Enterprise Manager Grid Control, and more fine-grained memory tuning, among many others.

Grid Installation Options Select the type of database installation you want to perform, click Next.
  • Single instance database installation: This option installs the database and the listener.

  • Real Application Clusters database installation: This option installs Oracle Real Application Clusters.

Select Install Type Select one of the following, then click Next:
  • Typical Installation: This installation method is selected by default. It lets you quickly install Oracle Database using minimal input. It installs the software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using the information that you specify on this screen.

  • Advanced Installation: This installation method enables to perform more complex installations, such as creating individual passwords for different accounts, creating specific types of starter databases (for example, for transaction processing or data warehouse systems), using different language groups, specifying e-mail notifications, and so on.

Select Product Language This option enables you to select the language in which you want to run the product.

Select the product Language from the Available Languages list, transfer it to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.

Select Database Edition Select Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, or Standard Edition One. Click Next.

If you click Select Options, then based on your selection you can enable or disable components from the components list. This screen enables you to customize the database. The components available in this screen are:

  • Oracle Partitioning

  • Oracle OLAP

  • Oracle Label Security

  • Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files

  • Oracle Database Vault option

  • Oracle Real Application Testing

Click OK to continue.

Note: The Select Options button is enabled only if you select the Enterprise Edition installation type.

Specify Installation Location The Oracle base path appears by default. You can change the path based on your requirement.

In the Software Location section, accept the default values or enter the Oracle home name and directory path in which you want to install Oracle components. The directory path should not contain spaces. Click Next.

Note: This screen is available only with Advanced Installation.

See Also: "Naming Directories" for information on directory naming conventions

Create Inventory You are prompted by the installer to specify the directory path for central inventory the first time you install any Oracle software on your computer. Click Next.

Note: By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users, whereas there is a separate Oracle Base for each user.

Select Configuration Type Select one of the following, click Next:
  • General Purpose / Transaction Processing: This is a starter database designed for general usage or transaction-heavy applications.

  • Data Warehousing: A starter database optimized to run Data Warehousing applications.

See the online Help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.

Specify Database Identifiers Specify the following information, then click Next:

Database Naming

Specify the Global Database Name using the following syntax:

database_name.domain

where:

  • database_name is the name of the database. It can contain no more than 30 characters (alphanumeric, underscore (_), dollar ($) , and pound (#)). The first 8 characters of the name must be unique.

  • domain is the domain used for the database. It can contain no more than 128 characters (alphanumeric, underscore (_), and pound (#)), inclusive of all periods.

For example:

sales.us.example.com

When you enter the Global Database Name, Oracle Universal Installer automatically populates the SID field with the database name, but you can change this SID to another name in Advanced installation. Oracle Universal Installer limits the SID to 12 alphanumeric characters and the SID cannot contain an underscore (_), dollar ( $), or pound (#).

See Also: "Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable"

Specify Configuration Options Specify the following configuration details, click Next:

Memory

Enable Automatic Memory Management option is selected by default. This option enables the database to automatically distribute memory between SGA and PGA. If you deselect this option, then the SGA and PGA must be sized manually.

Character Sets

This option enables you to store the character data in the database in one of the following methods:

  • Use the default: This option makes use of the operating system language settings.

  • Use Unicode: This option enables you to store multiple language groups

  • Choose from the list of character sets: This option enables the Select Database Character Set drop down list.

See Also:

Security

The Assert all new security settings option is selected by default. This setting includes enabling auditing and using new password profile.

Note: Oracle recommends that you use the default settings.

Sample Schema

The Create database with sample schema option is not selected by default. However, you can select the option, if you want to create the starter database with sample schema.

Specify Management Option Select one of the following, then click Next:
  • Use an Existing Grid Control for Database Management: This option is useful if you have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed.

  • Use Database Control for Database Management: This option enables you to manage Oracle Database locally. Optionally, select Enable Email Notifications and enter the outgoing SMTP server and e-mail address.

Specify Database Storage Options Select one of the following, click Next.
  • File System: Specify the database file location.

  • Automatic Storage Management: Specify a password for the ASMSNMP user.

Note: Installing Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported. Oracle recommends that these data files are installed in Oracle ASM disk groups.

Specify Backup and Recovery Options Select one of the following, click Next.
  • Disable automated backups

  • Enable automated backups: If you select this option, then the backup job will use a specified recovery storage area.

Specify Database Schema Passwords Enter and confirm passwords for the privileged database accounts, click Next.

Note: Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must remember the passwords that you specify.

Refer to "Unlocking and Changing Passwords" for information on password guidelines.

Privileged Operating System Groups The operating system groups are selected by default. You can also manually select the OSDBA and OSOPER groups.

Click Next.

See Also: "Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users" for information on operating system groups and users

Perform Prerequisite Checks This option checks if the minimum system requirements to carry out the database installation are met.

If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.

Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and check the system requirements once more.

Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you need to run as the root user. This generated script sets some of the system parameters to Oracle-recommended values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of this script. Refer to "Installation Fixup Scripts" for more information on fixup scripts.

To get a list of failed requirements, select ShowFailed from the list. To get a list of all the prerequirement checks run by the OUI, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequirement checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.

Note: You can check Ignore All, to ignore all the errors and proceed with the database installation.

See Also: Chapter 2, " Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements" for information on the system requirements

Summary Review the information displayed on this screen, Click Finish

Note: Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can save all the installation steps into a response file by clicking Save Response File. Later, this file can be used for a silent installation.

Install product This screen states the progress of a database installation. After the database is installed, you are prompted to execute some root configuration script for new inventory as a root user. Click Next.

This screen then displays the status information for the configuration assistants that configure the software and create a database.

Finally, a message is displayed at the end of Database Configuration Assistant process, and click OK.

Execute the root.sh script as the root user to complete the installation, and click OK.

Finish This screen is shown automatically when all the configuration tools are successful.

Click Close.


Caution:

After installation is complete, do not manually remove, or run cron jobs that remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle directories or their files while Oracle software is running. If you remove these files, then Oracle software can encounter intermittent hangs. Oracle Restart installations will fail with the following error:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.

4.6 Installing Oracle Database Examples

If you plan to use the following products or features, then download and install the products from the Oracle Database Examples media:

For information about installing software and various Oracle product demonstrations from the Oracle Database Examples media, refer to Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide.