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Oracle® Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Solaris Operating System

Part Number E10816-03
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2 Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the system configuration tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle grid infrastructure.

This chapter contains the following topics:

2.1 Reviewing Upgrade Best Practices

Caution:

Always create a backup of existing databases before starting any configuration change.

If you have an existing Oracle installation, then document version numbers, patches, and other configuration information, and review upgrade procedures for your existing installation. Review Oracle upgrade documentation before proceeding with installation, to decide how you want to proceed.

You can upgrade Oracle ASM 11g release 1 (11.1) without shutting down an Oracle RAC database by performing a rolling upgrade either of individual nodes, or of a set of nodes in the cluster. However, if you have a standalone database on a cluster that uses Oracle ASM, then you must shut down the standalone database before upgrading. If you are upgrading from Oracle ASM 10g, then you must shut down the entire Oracle ASM cluster to perform the upgrade.

If you have an existing Automatic Storage Management (ASM) installation, then review Oracle upgrade documentation. The location of the Oracle ASM home changes in this release, and you may want to consider other configuration changes to simplify or customize storage administration.

During rolling upgrades of the operating system, Oracle supports using different operating system binaries when both versions of the operating system are certified with the Oracle Database release you are using.

Note:

Using mixed operating system versions is only supported for the duration of an upgrade, over the period of a few hours. Oracle does not support operating a cluster with mixed operating systems for an extended period. Oracle does not support running Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle Real Application Clusters on heterogeneous platforms (servers with different chip architectures) in the same cluster.

To find the most recent software updates, and to find best practices recommendations about preupgrade, postupgrade, compatibility, and interoperability, refer to "Oracle Upgrade Companion." "Oracle Upgrade Companion" is available through Note 785351.1 on My Oracle Support:

https://metalink.oracle.com

2.2 Installation Fixup Scripts

With Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects when the minimum requirements for an installation are not met, and creates shell scripts, called fixup scripts, to finish incomplete system configuration steps. If OUI detects an incomplete task, then it generates fixup scripts (runfixup.sh). You can run the fixup script after you click the Fix and Check Again Button.

You also can have CVU generate fixup scripts before installation.

See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about using the cluvfy command

The Fixup script does the following:

If you have SSH configured between cluster member nodes for the user account that you will use for installation, then you can check your cluster configuration before installation and generate a fixup script to make operating system changes before starting the installation.

To do this, log in as the user account that will perform the installation, navigate to the staging area where the runcluvfy command is located, and use the following command syntax, where node is a comma-delimited list of nodes you want to make cluster members:

$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node -fixup -verbose

For example, if you intend to configure a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, enter the following command:

$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2 -fixup -verbose

2.3 Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal

During installation, you are required to perform tasks as root or as other users on remote terminals. Complete the following procedure for user accounts that you want to enable for remote display.

Note:

If you log in as another user (for example, oracle), then repeat this procedure for that user as well.

To enable remote display, complete one of the following procedures:

2.4 Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure

Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle Inventory group and a software owner for Oracle grid infrastructure.

Note:

During a grid infrastructure installation, both Oracle Clusterware and Automatic Storage Management are installed. You no longer can have separate Oracle Clusterware installation owners and Automatic Storage Management installation owners.

2.4.1 Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists

When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, OUI creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (by default, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Central Inventory directory. An oraInst.loc file has contents similar to the following:

inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group

In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle central inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to the central inventory (the OINSTALL group privilege).

If you have an existing Oracle central inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.

To determine if you have an Oracle central inventory directory (oraInventory) on your system:

Enter the following command:

# more /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc

If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

inventory_loc=/u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

In the previous output example:

  • The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory

  • The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in this example, oinstall).

Use the command grep groupname /etc/group to confirm that the group specified as the Oracle Inventory group still exists on the system. For example:

$ grep oinstall /etc/group
oinstall:x:1000:grid,oracle

2.4.2 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist

If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by entering a command similar to the following:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1000 oinstall

The preceding command creates the group oinstall, with the group ID number 1000. Members of the OINSTALL group are granted privileges to write to the Oracle central inventory (oraInventory).

By default, if an oraInventory group does not exist, then the installer lists the primary group of the installation owner for the grid infrastructure for a cluster as the oraInventory group. Ensure that this group is available as a primary group for all planned Oracle software installation owners.

Note:

Group and user IDs must be identical on all nodes in the cluster. Check to make sure that the group and user IDs you want to use are available on each cluster member node, and confirm that the primary group for each grid infrastructure for a cluster installation owner has the same name and group ID.

2.4.3 Creating the Oracle Grid Infrastructure User

You must create a software owner for Oracle grid infrastructure in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to separate grid infrastructure administrative privileges from Oracle Database administrative privileges.

    In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle grid infrastructure software installations is called the grid user. A user created to own either all Oracle installations, or only Oracle database installations, is called the oracle user.

2.4.3.1 Understanding Restrictions for Oracle Software Installation Owners

If you intend to use multiple Oracle software owners for different Oracle Database homes, then Oracle recommends that you create a separate software owner for Oracle grid infrastructure software (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM), and use that owner to run the Oracle grid infrastructure installation.

If you plan to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, then Oracle recommends that you create separate users for the Oracle grid infrastructure and the Oracle Database installations. If you use one installation owner, then when you want to perform administration tasks, you must change the value for $ORACLE_HOME to the instance you want to administer (ASM, in the grid infrastructure home, or the database in the Oracle home), using command syntax such as the following example, where grid is the Oracle grid infrastructure home:

ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid; export ORACLE_HOME

If you try to administer an instance using sqlplus, lsnrctl, or asmcmd commands while $ORACLE_HOME is set to a different binary path, then you will encounter errors. When starting srvctl from a database home, $ORACLE_HOME should be set, or srvctl fails. But if you are using srvctl in the grid infrastructure home, then $ORACLE_HOME is ignored, and the oracle home path does not affect srvctl commands. You always have to change $ORACLE_HOME to the instance that you want to administer.

To create separate Oracle software owners to create separate users and separate operating system privileges groups for different Oracle software installations, note that each of these users must have the Oracle central inventory group (oraInventory group) as their primary group. Members of this group have write privileges to the Oracle central inventory (oraInventory) directory, and are also granted permissions for various Oracle Clusterware resources, OCR keys, directories in the Oracle Clusterware home to which DBAs need write access, and other necessary privileges. In Oracle documentation, this group is represented as oinstall in code examples.

Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory group. You cannot have more than one central inventory for Oracle installations. If an Oracle software owner has a different central inventory group, then you may corrupt the central inventory.

Caution:

For grid infrastructure for a cluster installations, the Grid home must not be placed under one of the Oracle base directories, or under Oracle home directories of Oracle Database installation owners, or in the home directory of an installation owner. During installation, ownership of the path to the Grid home is changed to root. This change causes permission errors for other installations.

2.4.3.2 Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle or grid exists, enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):

# id -a oracle

If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)

Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user. The user and group ID numbers must be the same on each node you intend to make a cluster member node.

To use the existing user, ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall). If this user account will be used for Oracle Database installations, and you plan to have a different user account as the owner of the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM binaries, then ensure that the Oracle account is also a member of the group you plan to designate as the OSDBA for ASM group (the group whose members are permitted to write to Oracle ASM storage).

2.4.3.3 Creating or Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User for Oracle Grid Infrastructure

If the Oracle software owner (oracle, grid) user does not exist, or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it. If you want to use an existing user account, then modify it to ensure that the user ID and group IDs are the same on each cluster member node. The following procedures uses grid as the name of the Oracle software owner, and dba as the OSASM group. To create separate system privilege groups to separate administration privileges, complete group creation before you create the user Section 2.4.5, "Creating Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups and Users,".

  1. To create a grid installation owner account where you have an existing system privileges group (in this example, dba), whose members you want to have granted the SYSASM privilege to administer the Oracle ASM instance, enter a command similar to the following:

    # /usr/sbin/useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G dba grid
    

    In the preceding command:

    • The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user ID number. However, you must make note of the user ID number of the user you create for Oracle grid infrastructure, as you require it later during preinstallation, and you must have the same user ID number for this user on all nodes of the cluster.

    • The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group. For example: oinstall.

    • The -G option specified the secondary group, which in this example is dba.

      The secondary groups must include the OSASM group, whose members are granted the SYSASM privilege to administer the Oracle ASM instance. You can designate a unique group for the SYSASM system privileges, separate from database administrator groups, or you can designate one group as the OSASM and OSDBA group, so that members of that group are granted the SYSASM and SYSDBA privileges to grant system privileges to administer both the Oracle ASM instances and Oracle Database instances. In code examples, this group is asmadmin.

      If you are creating this user to own both Oracle grid infrastructure and an Oracle Database installation, then this user must have the OSDBA for ASM group as a secondary group. In code examples, this group name is asmdba. Members of the OSDBA for ASM group are granted access to Oracle ASM storage. You must create an OSDBA for ASM group if you plan to have multiple databases accessing Oracle ASM storage, or you must use the same group as the OSDBA for all databases, and for the OSDBA for ASM group.

    Use the usermod command to change existing user id numbers and groups.

    For example:

    # id -a oracle
    uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oracle) groups=501(oracle)
    # /usr/sbin/usermod -u 1001 -g 1000 -G 1000,1001 oracle
    # id -a oracle
    uid=1001(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall),1001(oracle)
    
  2. Set the password of the user that will own Oracle grid infrastructure. For example:

    # passwd grid
    
  3. Repeat this procedure on all of the other nodes in the cluster.

Note:

If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.

Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID defaults on each node, as group and user IDs likely will be different on each node. Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs, and confirm that they are unused on any node before you create or modify groups and users.

2.4.4 Creating the Oracle Base Directory Path

The Oracle base directory for the grid installation owner is the location where diagnostic and administrative logs, and other logs associated with Oracle ASM and Oracle Clusterware are stored.

If you have created a path for the Oracle Clusterware home that is compliant with Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines for Oracle software paths then you do not need to create an Oracle base directory. When OUI finds an OFA-compliant path, it creates the Oracle base directory in that path.

For OUI to recognize the path as an Oracle software path, it must be in the form u0[1-9]/app, and it must be writable by any member of the oraInventory (oinstall) group. The Optimal Flexible Architecture path for the Oracle base is /u01/app/user, where user is the name of the Oracle software installation owner.

Oracle recommends that you create an Oracle base path manually, particularly if you have separate grid infrastructure for a cluster and Oracle Database software owners, so that you can separate log files.

For example:

# mkdir -p  /u01/app/grid
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01/
# chmod -R 775 /u01/
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle

Note:

Placing Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster binaries on a cluster file system is not supported.

2.4.5 Creating Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups and Users

A Job Role Separation privileges configuration of Oracle ASM is a configuration with groups and users that divide administrative access privileges to the Oracle ASM installation from other administrative privileges users and groups associated with other Oracle installations. Administrative privileges access is granted by membership in separate operating system groups, and installation privileges are granted by using different installation owners for each Oracle installation.

Note:

This configuration is optional, to restrict user access to Oracle software by responsibility areas for different administrator users.

If you prefer, you can allocate operating system user privileges so that you can use one administrative user and one group for operating system authentication for all system privileges on the storage and database tiers.

For example, you can designate the oracle user to be the installation owner for all Oracle software, and designate oinstall to be the group whose members are granted all system privileges for Oracle Clusterware, Automatic Storage Management, and all Oracle Databases on the servers, and all privileges as installation owners. This group must also be the Oracle Inventory group.

Oracle recommends that you use at least two groups: A system privileges group whose members are granted administrative system privileges, and an installation owner group (the oraInventory group) to provide separate installation privileges the OINSTALL privilege. To simplify using the defaults for Oracle tools such as Cluster Verification Utility, if you do choose to use a single operating system group to grant all system privileges and the right to write to the oraInventory, then that group name should be oinstall.

Note:

To use a directory service, such as Network Information Services (NIS), refer to your operating system documentation for further information.

2.4.5.1 Overview of Creating Job Role Separation Groups and Users

This section provides an overview of how to create users and groups to use Job Role Separation. Log in as root to create these groups and users.

2.4.5.1.1 Users for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation

Oracle recommends that you create the following operating system groups and users for all installations where you create separate software installation owners:

One software owner to own each Oracle software product (typically, oracle, for the database software owner user, and grid for Oracle grid infrastructure.

You must create at least one software owner the first time you install Oracle software on the system. This user owns the Oracle binaries of the Oracle grid infrastructure software, and you can also make this user the owner of the Oracle Database or Oracle RAC binaries.

Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group, so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the central inventory (oraInventory), and so that OCR and Oracle Clusterware resource permissions are set correctly. The database software owner must also have the OSDBA group and (if you create it) the OSOPER group as secondary groups. In Oracle documentation, when Oracle software owner users are referred to, they are called oracle users.

Oracle recommends that you create separate software owner users to own each Oracle software installation. Oracle particularly recommends that you do this if you intend to install multiple databases on the system.

In Oracle documentation, a user created to own the Oracle grid infrastructure binaries is called the grid user. This user owns both the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management binaries.

See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about the OSDBA, OSASM and OSOPER groups and the SYSDBA, SYSASM and SYSOPER privileges
2.4.5.1.2 Database Groups for Job Role Separation Installations

The following operating system groups and user are required if you are installing Oracle Database:

  • The OSDBA group (typically, dba)

    You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege). If you do not create separate OSDBA, OSOPER and OSASM groups for the Oracle ASM instance, then operating system user accounts that have the SYSOPER and SYSASM privileges must be members of this group. The name used for this group in Oracle code examples is dba. If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group, then the OSDBA group you define is also by default the OSASM group.

    To specify a group name other than the default dba group, then you must choose the Advanced installation type to install the software or start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) as a user that is not a member of this group. In this case, OUI prompts you to specify the name of this group.

    Members of the OSDBA group formerly were granted SYSASM privileges on Oracle ASM instances, including mounting and dismounting disk groups. This privileges grant is removed with 11g release 2, if different operating system groups are designated as the OSDBA and OSASM groups. If the same group is used for both OSDBA and OSASM, then the privilege is retained.

  • The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)

    This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges (the SYSOPER privilege). By default, members of the OSDBA group also have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege.

    To use the OSOPER group to create a database administrator group with fewer privileges than the default dba group, then you must choose the Advanced installation type to install the software or start OUI as a user that is not a member of the dba group. In this case, OUI prompts you to specify the name of this group. The usual name chosen for this group is oper.

2.4.5.1.3 ASM Groups for Job Role Separation Installations

SYSASM is a new system privilege that enables the separation of the Oracle ASM storage administration privilege from SYSDBA. With Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g release 2 (11.2), members of the database OSDBA group are not granted SYSASM privileges, unless the operating system group designated as the OSASM group is the same group designated as the OSDBA group.

Select separate operating system groups as the operating system authentication groups for privileges on Oracle ASM. Before you start OUI, create the following groups and users for Oracle ASM

  • The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Group (typically asmadmin)

    This is a required group. Create this group as a separate group if you want to have separate administration privilege groups for Oracle ASM and Oracle Database administrators. In Oracle documentation, the operating system group whose members are granted privileges is called the OSASM group, and in code examples, where there is a group specifically created to grant this privilege, it is referred to as asmadmin.

    If you have multiple databases on your system, and use multiple OSDBA groups so that you can provide separate SYSDBA privileges for each database, then you should create a separate OSASM group, and use a separate user from the database users to own the grid infrastructure installation (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM). Oracle ASM can support multiple databases.

    Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges permit mounting and dismounting disk groups, and other storage administration tasks. SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance.

  • The ASM Database Administrator group (OSDBA for ASM, typically asmdba)

    Members of the ASM Database Administrator group (OSDBA for ASM) are granted read and write access to files managed by Oracle ASM. The grid infrastructure installation owner and all Oracle Database software owners must be a member of this group, and all users with OSDBA membership on databases that have access to the files managed by Oracle ASM must be members of the OSDBA group for ASM.

  • Members of the ASM Operator Group (OSOPER for ASM, typically asmoper)

    This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle ASM instance administrative privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up and stopping the Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group also have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.

    To use the ASM Operator group to create an ASM administrator group with fewer privileges than the default asmadmin group, then you must choose the Advanced installation type to install the software, In this case, OUI prompts you to specify the name of this group. In code examples, this group is asmoper.

    If you want to have an OSOPER for ASM group, then the grid infrastructure for a cluster software owner must be a member of this group.

2.4.5.2 Creating Database Groups and Users with Job Role Separation

The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and groups:.

2.4.5.2.1 Creating the OSDBA Group to Prepare for Database Installations

If you intend to install Oracle Database to use with the grid infrastructure installation, then you must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:

  • An OSDBA group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database installation

If the OSDBA group does not exist, or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create it as follows. Use the group name dba unless a group with that name already exists:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1200 dba
2.4.5.2.2 Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations

Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. To use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:

  • If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation

If you require a new OSOPER group, then create it as follows. Use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists.

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1201 oper
2.4.5.2.3 Creating the OSASM Group

If the OSASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSASM group, then create it as follows. Use the group name asmadmin unless a group with that name already exists:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1000 asmadmin
2.4.5.2.4 Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group

Create an OSOPER for ASM group if you want to identify a group of operating system users, such as database administrators, whom you want to grant a limited set of Oracle ASM storage tier administrative privileges, including the ability to start up and shut down the Oracle ASM storage. For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSASM group, and provide that group as the OSOPER for ASM group during the installation interview.

If you require a new OSOPER for ASM group, then create it as follows. In the following, use the group name asmoper unless a group with that name already exists:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1301 asmoper
2.4.5.2.5 Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group for Database Access to Oracle ASM

You must create an OSDBA for ASM group to provide access to the Oracle ASM instance. This is necessary if OSASM and OSDBA are different groups.

If the OSDBA for ASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA for ASM group, then create it as follows. Use the group name asmdba unless a group with that name already exists:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1300 asmdba
2.4.5.2.6 When to Create the Oracle Software Owner User

You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation

  • If you have created an Oracle software owner for Oracle grid infrastructure, such as grid, and you want to create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle Database software, such as oracle.

2.4.5.2.7 Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle or grid exists, enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):

# id -a oracle

If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)

Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user. To use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups. Refer to one of the following sections for more information:

Note:

If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.

Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID defaults on each node, as group and user IDs likely will be different on each node. Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs, and confirm that they are unused on any node before you create or modify groups and users.

2.4.5.2.8 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User

If the Oracle software owner user does not exist, or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows. Use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already exists.

  1. To create an oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:

    # /usr/sbin/useradd -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba oracle
    

    In the preceding command:

    • The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user ID number. However, you must make note of the oracle user ID number, as you require it later during preinstallation.

    • The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group--for example, oinstall

    • The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA group, the OSDBA for ASM group, and, if required, the OSOPER for ASM group. For example: dba, asmdba, or dba, asmdba, asmoper

  2. Set the password of the oracle user:

    # passwd oracle
    
2.4.5.2.9 Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User

If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall, or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSDBA for ASM groups, then enter a command similar to the following to modify it. Specify the primary group using the -g option and any required secondary group using the -G option:

# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba oracle

Repeat this procedure on all of the other nodes in the cluster.

2.4.5.2.10 Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes

Note:

You must complete the following procedures only if you are using local users and groups. If you are using users and groups defined in a directory service such as NIS, then they are already identical on each cluster node.

Oracle software owner users and the Oracle Inventory, OSDBA, and OSOPER groups must exist and be identical on all cluster nodes. To create these identical users and groups, you must identify the user ID and group IDs assigned them on the node where you created them, and then create the user and groups with the same name and ID on the other cluster nodes.

Identifying Existing User and Group IDs

To determine the user ID (UID) of the grid or oracle users, and the group IDs (GID) of the existing Oracle groups, follow these steps:

  1. Enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine a user ID for the oracle user):

    # id -a oracle
    

    The output from this command is similar to the following:

    uid=502(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper),506(asmdba)
    
  2. From the output, identify the user ID (UID) for the user and the group identities (GIDs) for the groups to which it belongs. Ensure that these ID numbers are identical on each node of the cluster. The user's primary group is listed after gid. Secondary groups are listed after groups.

Creating Users and Groups on the Other Cluster Nodes

To create users and groups on the other cluster nodes, repeat the following procedure on each node:

  1. Log in to the next cluster node as root.

  2. Enter commands similar to the following to create the oinstall, asmadmin, and asmdba groups, and if required, the asmoper, dba, and oper groups. Use the -g option to specify the correct GID for each group.

    # /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1000 oinstall
    # /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1100 asmadmin
    # /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1200 dba
    # /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1201 oper
    # /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1300 asmdba
    # /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1301 asmoper
    

    Note:

    If the group already exists, then use the groupmod command to modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same group ID for a particular group on this node, then view the /etc/group file on all nodes to identify a group ID that is available on every node. You must then change the group ID on all nodes to the same group ID.
  3. To create the oracle or grid infrastructure (grid) user, enter a command similar to the following (in this example, to create the oracle user):

    # /usr/sbin/useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G asmdba,dba oracle
    

    In the preceding command:

    • The -u option specifies the user ID, which must be the user ID that you identified in the previous subsection

    • The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall

    • The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which can include the OSASM, OSDBA, OSDBA for ASM, and OSOPER or OSOPER for ASM groups. For example:

      • A grid installation owner: OSASM (asmadmin), whose members are granted the SYSASM privilege

      • An Oracle Database installation owner without SYSASM privileges access: OSDBA (dba), OSDBA for ASM (asmdba), OSOPER for ASM (asmoper)

      Note:

      If the user already exists, then use the usermod command to modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same user ID for the user on every node, then view the /etc/passwd file on all nodes to identify a user ID that is available on every node. You must then specify that ID for the user on all of the nodes.
  4. Set the password of the user. For example:

    # passwd oracle
    
  5. Complete user environment configuration tasks for each user as described in the section Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments.

2.4.6 Example of Creating Standard Groups, Users, and Paths

The following is an example of how to create the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall), and a single group (dba) as the OSDBA, OSASM and OSDBA for ASM groups. In addition, it shows how to create the grid infrastructure software owner (grid), and one Oracle Database owner (oracle) with correct group memberships. This example also shows how to configure an Oracle base path compliant with OFA structure with correct permissions:

# groupadd -g 1000 oinstall
# groupadd -g 1200 dba
# useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G dba grid
# useradd -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba oracle
# mkdir -p  /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
# mkdir /u01/app/oracle
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/

After running these commands, you have the following groups and users:

  • An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall). Members who have the central inventory group as their primary group, are granted the OINSTALL permission to write to the oraInventory directory.

  • A single system privileges group that is used as the OSASM, OSDBA, OSDBA for ASM, and OSOPER for ASM group (dba), whose members are granted the SYSASM and SYSDBA privilege to administer Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database, and are granted SYSASM and OSOPER for ASM access to the Oracle ASM storage.

  • An Oracle grid installation for a cluster owner (grid), with the oraInventory group as its primary group, and with the OSASM group as the secondary group.

  • An Oracle Database owner (oracle) with the oraInventory group as its primary group, and the OSDBA group as its secondary group.

  • /u01/app owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions. This ownership and permissions enables OUI to create the Oracle Inventory directory, in the path /u01/app/oraInventory.

  • /u01 owned by root.

  • /u01/app/11.2.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions. These permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the installation process.

  • /u01/app/oracle owned by oracle:oinstall with 775 permissions.

2.4.7 Example of Creating Role-allocated Groups, Users, and Paths

The following is an example of how to create role-allocated groups and users that is compliant with an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) deployment:

# groupadd -g 1000 oinstall
# groupadd -g 1100 asmadmin
# groupadd -g 1200 dba1
# groupadd -g 1250 dba2
# groupadd -g 1300 asmdba
# groupadd -g 1301 asmoper
# useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G asmadmin,asmdba,asmoper grid
# useradd -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba1,asmdba oracle1
# useradd -u 1102 -g oinstall -G dba2,asmdba oracle2
# mkdir -p /u01/app/grid
# mkdir -p  /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle1
# chown oracle1:oinstall /u01/app/oracle1
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle2
# chown oracle2:oinstall /u01/app/oracle2
# chmod -R 775 /u01

After running these commands, you have the following groups and users:

  • An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall), whose members that have this group as their primary group are granted permissions to write to the oraInventory directory.

  • A separate OSASM group (asmadmin), whose members are granted the SYSASM privilege to administer Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM.

  • A separate OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba), whose members include grid, oracle1 and oracle2, and who are granted access to Oracle ASM.

  • A separate OSOPER for ASM group (asmoper), whose members include grid, and who are granted limited Oracle ASM administrator privileges, including the permissions to start and stop the Oracle ASM instance.

  • An Oracle grid installation for a cluster owner (grid), with the oraInventory group as its primary group, and with the OSASM (asmadmin), OSDBA for ASM (asmdba) and OSOPER for ASM groups as secondary groups.

  • Two separate OSDBA groups for two different databases (dba1 and dba2) to establish separate SYSDBA privileges for each database.

  • Two Oracle Database software owners (oracle1 and oracle2), to divide ownership of two Oracle database installs, with the OraInventory group as their primary group, and the OSDBA group for their database (dba1 or dba2) and the OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba) as their secondary groups.

  • An OFA-compliant mount point /u01 owned by grid:oinstall before installation.

  • An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle1 owned by oracle1:oinstall with 775 permissions.

  • An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle 2 owned by oracle2:oinstall with 775 permissions.

  • A Grid home /u01/app/11.2.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 (drwxdrwxr-x) permissions. These permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the installation process to root:oinstall with 755 permissions (drwxr-xr-x).

  • An Oracle base for the grid installation owner /u01/app/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions, and changed during the installation process to 755 permissions. The grid installation owner Oracle base directory is the location where Oracle ASM diagnostic and administrative log files are placed. During installation, OUI creates the Oracle Inventory directory, in the path /u01/app/oraInventory. This path remains owned by grid:oinstall, to enable other Oracle software owners to write to the central inventory.

2.5 Checking the Hardware Requirements

Each system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

If you are installing Oracle Database, then you require additional space, either on a file system or in an Automatic Storage Management disk group, for the Fast Recovery Area if you choose to configure automated database backups. Oracle Real Application Clusters requires at least 5 GB.

To ensure that each system meets these requirements:

  1. To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command to obtain the system activity report:

    # sar -r n i 
    

    If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  2. To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/swap -s
    

    If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

  3. To determine the amount of disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    This command displays disk space in 1 kilobyte blocks. On most systems, you can use the df command with the -h flag (df -h) to display output in "human-readable" format, such as "24G" and "10M." If there is less than 1 GB of disk space available in the /tmp directory (less than 1048576 1-k blocks), then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TEMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment (described later).

    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact your system administrator for information about extending file systems.

  4. To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    The following table shows the approximate disk space requirements for software files for each installation type:

    Installation Type Requirement for Software Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 4
    Standard Edition 4
    Custom (maximum) 4

  5. To determine if the system architecture can run the Oracle software, enter the following command:

    # /bin/isainfo -kv
    

    Note:

    The following is the expected output of this command:

    64-bit SPARC installation:

    64-bit sparcv10 kernel modules

    64-bit x86 installation:

    64-bit amd64 kernel modules

    Ensure that the Oracle software you have is the correct Oracle software for your processor type.

    If the output of this command indicates that your system architecture does not match the system for which the Oracle software you have is written, then you cannot install the software. Obtain the correct software for your system architecture before proceeding further.

2.6 Checking the Network Requirements

Review the following sections to check that you have the networking hardware and internet protocol (IP) addresses required for an Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster installation:

Note:

For the most up-to-date information about supported network protocols and hardware for Oracle RAC installations, refer to the Certify pages on the My Oracle Support Web site at the following URL:
https://metalink.oracle.com

2.6.1 Network Hardware Requirements

The following is a list of requirements for network configuration:

  • Each node must have at least two network adapters or network interface cards (NICs): one for the public network interface, and one for the private network interface (the interconnect).

    To use multiple NICs for the public network or for the private network, Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding, or "link aggregation," IPMP. Use separate bonding for the public and private networks, because during installation each interface is defined as a public or private interface.

    Note:

    If you are installing Oracle Clusterware on a Sun Cluster, then you should select the Sun Cluster virtual network interface clprivnet0 as the clusterware private network address.
  • If you want to use more than one NIC for the public network or for the private network, then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding, or "link aggregation," IPMP.

  • The public interface names associated with the network adapters for each network must be the same on all nodes, and the private interface names associated with the network adaptors should be the same on all nodes.

    For example: With a two-node cluster, you cannot configure network adapters on node1 with eth0 as the public interface, but on node2 have eth1 as the public interface. Public interface names must be the same, so you must configure eth0 as public on both nodes. You should configure the private interfaces on the same network adapters as well. If eth1 is the private interface for node1, then eth1 should be the private interface for node2.

  • For the public network, each network adapter must support TCP/IP.

  • For the private network, the interconnect must support the user datagram protocol (UDP) using high-speed network adapters and switches that support TCP/IP (minimum requirement 1 Gigabit Ethernet).

    Note:

    UDP is the default interconnect protocol for Oracle RAC, and TCP is the interconnect protocol for Oracle Clusterware. You must use a switch for the interconnect. Oracle recommends that you use a dedicated switch.

    Oracle does not support token-rings or crossover cables for the interconnect.

  • For the private network, the endpoints of all designated interconnect interfaces must be completely reachable on the network. There should be no node that is not connected to every private network interface. You can test if an interconnect interface is reachable using a ping command.

  • During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network interface that OUI detects on your cluster node. You must identify each interface as a public or private interface, and you must use the same private interfaces for both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC.

    You can bond separate interfaces to a common interface to provide redundancy, in case of a NIC failure, but Oracle recommends that you do not create separate interfaces for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. If you use more than one NIC for the private interconnect, then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding. Note that multiple private interfaces provide load balancing but not failover, unless bonded.

    IP addresses on the subnet you identify as private are assigned as private IP addresses for cluster member nodes. You do not need to configure these addresses manually in a hosts directory.

2.6.2 IP Address Requirements

Before starting the installation, you must have at least two interfaces configured on each node: One for the private IP address and one for the public IP address.

You can configure IP addresses with one of the following options:

  • Oracle Grid Naming Service (GNS) using a static public node address and dynamically allocated IPs for the Oracle Clusterware provided VIP addresses, DHCP server assigned, and resolved using a multicast domain name server configured as part of Oracle Clusterware within the cluster. If you plan to use GNS, then you must have the following:

    • A DHCP service running on the public network for the cluster

    • Enough addresses on the DHCP to provide 1 IP address for each node's virtual IP, and 3 IP addresses for the cluster used by the Single Client Access Name (SCAN) for the cluster

  • Static addresses network administrators assign on a network domain name server (DNS) for each node. Selecting this option requires that you request network administration updates when you modify the cluster.

Note:

Oracle recommends that you use a static hostname for all server node public hostnames.

Public IP addresses and virtual IP addresses must be in the same subnet.

2.6.2.1 IP Address Requirements with Grid Naming Service

If you enable Grid Naming Service (GNS), then name resolution requests to the cluster are delegated to the GNS, which is listening on the GNS virtual IP address. You define this address in the DNS domain before installation. The DNS must be configured to delegate resolution requests for cluster names (any names in the subdomain delegated to the cluster) to the GNS. When a request comes to the domain, GNS processes the requests and responds with the appropriate addresses for the name requested.

To use GNS, before installation the DNS administrator must establish DNS Lookup to direct DNS resolution of a subdomain to the cluster. If you enable GNS, then you must have a DHCP service on the public network that allows the cluster to dynamically allocate the virtual IP addresses as required by the cluster.

2.6.2.2 IP Address Requirements for Manual Configuration

If you do not enable GNS, then the public and virtual IP addresses for each node must be static IP addresses, configured before installation for each node, but not currently in use. Public and virtual IP addresses must be on the same subnet.

Oracle Clusterware manages private IP addresses in the private subnet on interfaces you identify as private during the installation interview.

The cluster must have the following addresses configured:

  • A public IP address for each node

  • A virtual IP address for each node

  • A single client access name (SCAN) configured on the domain name server (DNS) for Round Robin resolution to three addresses (recommended) or at least one address.

The single client access name (SCAN) is a name used to provide service access for clients to the cluster. Because the SCAN is associated with the cluster as a whole, rather than to a particular node, the SCAN makes it possible to add or remove nodes from the cluster without needing to reconfigure clients. It also adds location independence for the databases, so that client configuration does not have to depend on which nodes are running a particular database. Clients can continue to access the cluster in the same way as with previous releases, but Oracle recommends that clients accessing the cluster use the SCAN.

The SCAN addresses must be on the same subnet as virtual IP addresses and public IP addresses. For high availability and scalability, Oracle recommends that you configure the SCAN to use Round Robin resolution to three addresses. The name for the SCAN cannot begin with a numeral. For installation to succeed, the SCAN must resolve to at least one address.

Note:

Oracle strongly recommends that you do not configure SCAN VIP addresses in the hosts file. Use DNS resolution for SCAN VIPs. If you use the hosts file to resolve SCANs, then you will only be able to resolve to one IP address and you will have only one SCAN address.

See Also:

Appendix C, "Understanding Network Addresses" for more information about network addresses

2.6.3 DNS Configuration for Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service

If you plan to use GNS, then before grid infrastructure installation, you must configure your domain name server (DNS) to send to GNS name resolution requests for the subdomain GNS serves, which are the cluster member nodes.

You must configure the DNS to send GNS name resolution requests using delegation. Configure delegation using the following procedure:

  1. In the DNS, create an entry for the GNS virtual IP address. For example:

    gns-server.clustername.com: 192.0.2.1
    

    The address you provide must be routable.

  2. In the DNS, create an entry similar to the following for the delegated domain, where clusterdomain.example.com is the subdomain you want to delegate:

    clusterdomain.example.com: NS gns-server.clustername.com 
    

    When using GNS, you must configure the resolve.conf on the nodes in the cluster to contain name server entries that are resolvable to corporate DNS servers. The total timeout period configured—a combination of options attempts (retries) and options timeout (exponential backoff)—should be less than 30 seconds. For example, where xxx.xxx.xxx.42 and xxx.xxx.xxx.15 are valid name server addresses in your network, provide an entry similar to the following in /etc/resolv.conf:

    options attempts: 2
    options timeout: 1
    
    search clusterdomain.example.com example.com
    nameserver xxx.xxx.xxx.42
    nameserver xxx.xxx.xxx.15
    

    /etc/nsswitch.conf controls name service lookup order. In some system configurations, the Network Information System (NIS) can cause problems with Oracle SCAN address resolution. Oracle recommends that you place the nis entry at the end of the search list. For example:

    /etc/nsswitch.conf
         hosts:    files   dns   nis
    

2.6.4 Grid Naming Service Configuration Example

If you use GNS, then you need to specify a static IP address for the GNS VIP address, and delegate a subdomain to be delegated to that static GNS IP address.

As nodes are added to the cluster, your organization's DHCP server can provide addresses for these nodes dynamically. These addresses are then registered automatically in GNS, and GNS provides resolution within the subdomain to cluster node addresses registered with GNS.

Because allocation and configuration of addresses is performed automatically with GNS, no further configuration is required. Oracle Clusterware provides dynamic network configuration as nodes are added to or removed from the cluster. The following example is provided only for information.

With a two node cluster where you have defined the GNS VIP, after installation you might have a configuration similar to the following for a two-node cluster, where the cluster name is mycluster, the GNS parent domain is example.com, the subdomain is grid.example.com, 192.0.2 in the IP addresses represent the cluster public IP address network, and 192.168.0 represents the private IP address subnet:

Table 2-1 Grid Naming Service Example Network

Identity Home Node Host Node Given Name Type Address Address Assigned By Resolved By

GNS VIP

None

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-gns.example.com

virtual

192.0.2.1

Fixed by net administrator

DNS

Node 1 Public

Node 1

node1

node1Foot 1 

Public

192.0.2.101

Fixed

GNS

Node 1 VIP

Node 1

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

node1-vip

Virtual

192.0.2.104

DHCP

GNS

Node 1 Private

Node 1

node1

node1-priv

Private

192.168.0.1

Fixed or DHCP

GNS

Node 2 Public

Node 2

node2

node2Footref 1

Public

192.0.2.102

Fixed

GNS

Node 2 VIP

Node 2

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

node2-vip

Virtual

192.0.2.105

DHCP

GNS

Node 2 Private

Node 2

node2

node2-priv

Private

192.168.0.2

Fixed or DHCP

GNS

SCAN VIP 1

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan.grid.example.com

virtual

192.0.2.201

DHCP

GNS

SCAN VIP 2

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan.grid.example.com

virtual

192.0.2.202

DHCP

GNS

SCAN VIP 3

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan.grid.example.com

virtual

192.0.2.203

DHCP

GNS


Footnote 1 Node hostnames may resolve to multiple addresses, including any private IP addresses or VIP addresses currently running on that host.

2.6.5 Manual IP Address Configuration Example

If you choose not to use GNS, then before installation you must configure public, virtual, and private IP addresses. Also, check that the default gateway can be accessed by a ping command. To find the default gateway, use the route command, as described in your operating system's help utility.

For example, with a two node cluster where each node has one public and one private interface, and you have defined a SCAN domain address to resolve on your DNS to one of three IP addresses, you might have the configuration shown in the following table for your network interfaces:

Table 2-2 Manual Network Configuration Example

Identity Home Node Host Node Given Name Type Address Address Assigned By Resolved By

Node 1 Public

Node 1

node1

node1Foot 1 

Public

192.0.2.101

Fixed

DNS

Node 1 VIP

Node 1

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

node1-vip

Virtual

192.0.2.104

Fixed

DNS and hosts file

Node 1 Private

Node 1

node1

node1-priv

Private

192.168.0.1

Fixed

DNS and hosts file, or none

Node 2 Public

Node 2

node2

node2Footref 1

Public

192.0.2.102

Fixed

DNS

Node 2 VIP

Node 2

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

node2-vip

Virtual

192.0.2.105

Fixed

DNS and hosts file

Node 2 Private

Node 2

node2

node2-priv

Private

192.168.0.2

Fixed

DNS and hosts file, or none

SCAN VIP 1

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan

virtual

192.0.2.201

Fixed

DNS

SCAN VIP 2

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan

virtual

192.0.2.202

Fixed

DNS

SCAN VIP 3

none

Selected by Oracle Clusterware

mycluster-scan

virtual

192.0.2.203

Fixed

DNS


Footnote 1 Node hostnames may resolve to multiple addresses.

You do not need to provide a private name for the interconnect. If you want name resolution for the interconnect, then you can configure private IP names in the hosts file or the DNS. However, Oracle Clusterware assigns interconnect addresses on the interface defined during installation as the private interface (eth1, for example), and to the subnet used for the private subnet.

The addresses to which the SCAN resolves are assigned by Oracle Clusterware, so they are not fixed to a particular node. To enable VIP failover, the configuration shown in the preceding table defines the SCAN addresses and the public and VIP addresses of both nodes on the same subnet, 192.0.2.

Note:

All host names must conform to the RFC 952 standard, which permits alphanumeric characters. Host names using underscores ("_") are not allowed.

2.6.6 Network Interface Configuration Options

The precise configuration you choose for your network depends on the size and use of the cluster you want to configure, and the level of availability you require.

If certified Network-attached Storage (NAS) is used for Oracle RAC and this storage is connected through Ethernet-based networks, then you must have a third network interface for NAS I/O. Failing to provide three separate interfaces in this case can cause performance and stability problems under load.

2.6.7 Checking the Run Level and Name Service Cache Daemon

To prevent public network failures with Oracle RAC databases using NAS devices or NFS mounts, enable the Name Service Cache Daemon (nscd). The nscd provides a caching mechanism for the most common name service requests. It is automatically started when the system starts up in a multi-user state. Oracle software requires that the server is started with multiuser run level (3), which is the default for Solaris.

To check to see if the server is set to 3, enter the command who -r. For example:

# who -r 
.       run-level 3  Jan 4 14:04     3      0  S 

Refer to your operating system documentation if you need to change the run level.

To check to see if the name service cache daemon is running, enter the following command:

# svcs svc:/sysstem/name-service-cache
STATE STIME FMRI
online Aug_28 svc:/system/name-service-cache:default

Alternatively, enter the command ps -aef |grep nscd.

2.7 Identifying Software Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following operating system software is installed on the system. Note that patch requirements are minimum required patch versions, and that earlier patch numbers are rolled into later patch updates.

To check software requirements, requirements refer to Section 2.8, "Checking the Software Requirements."

OUI performs checks your system to verify that it meets the listed operating system package requirements. To ensure that these checks complete successfully, verify the requirements before you start OUI.

Note:

Oracle does not support running different operating system versions on cluster members, unless an operating system is being upgraded. You cannot run different operating system version binaries on members of the same cluster, even if each operating system is supported.

The following is the list of supported Solaris platforms and requirements at the time of release:

2.7.1 Software Requirements List for Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit) Platforms

Table 2-3 System Requirements for Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit)

Item Requirement

Operating system

Solaris 10 U6 (5.10-2008.10) or later

Packages and Patches for all installations

Solaris 10

SUNWarc
SUNWbtool
SUNWcsl
SUNWhea
SUNWlibC
SUNWlibm
SUNWlibms
SUNWsprot
SUNWtoo
SUNWi1of (ISO8859-1)
SUNWi1cs (ISO8859-15)
SUNWi15cs
SUNWxwfnt
119963-14 or later (SunOS 5.10: Shared library patch for C++)
120753-06 or later (SunOS 5.10: Microtasking libraries (libmtsk) patch)
139574-03 or later (SunOS 5.10: file crle ldd stings elfdump patch, required for Oracle Clusterware))

Note: You may also require additional font packages for Java, depending on your locale. Refer to the following Web site for more information:

http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/font-requirements.html

Database Smart Flash Cache (An Enterprise Edition only feature.)

The following patches are required for Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit) if you are using the flash cache feature:

140797-01
140900-01
141017-01
141415-10
141737-05

IPMI

The following patches are required only if you plan to configure Failure Isolation using IPMI on SPARC systems:

137585-05  or later (IPMItool patch)
137594-02  or later (BMC driver patch)

In addition, there may be additional patches required for your firmware. Review section Section 2.12, "Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)" for additional information.

Oracle RAC

Oracle Clusterware, or a supported Sun Cluster version. Sun Cluster is supported for use with Oracle RAC on SPARC systems but it is not required.

If you use Sun Cluster, then you must install the following additional kernel packages and patches:

SUNWscucm 3.2.0-2008.02 or later
SUNWudlmr 3.2.0-2008.02 or later
SUNWudlm 3.2.0-2008.2 or later
125508-08
125514-05
125992-04
126047-11
126095-05
126106-33

Note: You do not require the additional packages if you install Oracle Clusterware.

If you use a volume manager, then you may need to install additional kernel packages.

Review the following additional information for UDLM:

Packages and patches for Sun Cluster

Sun Cluster 3.1 and Sun Cluster 3.2

ORCLudlm 64-Bit reentrant 3.3.4.10

For Sun Cluster, Oracle provides a UDLM patch that you must install onto each node in the cluster from the /udlm directory on the clusterware directory before installing and configuring Oracle RAC. Although you may have a functional version of the UDLM from a previous Oracle Database release, you must install the Oracle 11g release 2 (11.2) 3.3.4.10 UDLM.

Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with the following software:

IBM MQSeries V6.6.0, client and server

Tibco Rendezvous 7.2

Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK)

Sun ONE Studio 12 (C and C++ 5.9)

In addition, ensure that the following patches are installed:

139574-03 or later (SunOS 5.10)
124861-15 or later (SunOS 5.10 Compiler Common patch for Sun C C++)

Oracle ODBC Driver

gcc 3.4.2

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) packages are only needed if you plan on using ODBC. If you do not plan to use ODBC, then you do not need to install the ODBC RPMs for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, or Oracle RAC.

Programming languages for Oracle RAC database

  • Pro*COBOL

    Micro Focus Cobol 5.0

  • Pro*FORTRAN

    Sun ONE Studio 11 (Fortran 95)

Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers

You can use the following optional JDK versions with the Oracle JDBC/OCI drivers, however they are not required for the installation:

  • JDK 6 Update 10 (Java SE Development Kit 1.6 u10)

  • JDK 5 (1.5.0_16)

Note: JDK 1.5.0 is installed with this release.


2.7.2 Software Requirements List for Solaris Operating System (x86 64-Bit) Platforms

Table 2-4 System Requirements for Solaris Operating System (x86 64-Bit)

Item Requirement

Operating system

Solaris 10 U6 (5.10-2008.10) or later

Packages and Patches for all installations

Solaris 10

SUNWarc
SUNWbtool
SUNWcsl
SUNWhea
SUNWlibC
SUNWlibm
SUNWlibms
SUNWsprot
SUNWtoo
SUNWi1of (ISO8859-1)
SUNWi1cs (ISO8859-15)
SUNWi15cs
SUNWxwfnt
119961-05 or later
119964-14 or later
120754-06 or later
139556-08 or later
139575-03 or later
137104-02 or later

Note: You may also require additional font packages for Java, depending on your locale. Refer to the following Web site for more information:

http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/font-requirements.html

Database Smart Flash Cache (An Enterprise Edition only feature.)

The following patches are required for Solaris Operating System (x86 64-Bit) if you are using the flash cache feature:

140797-01
140900-01
141017-01
141415-10
141737-05

IPMI

There may be additional patches required for your firmware. Review section Section 2.12, "Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)" for additional information.

Sun Cluster

If you use Sun Cluster, then you must install the following additional kernel packages and patches:

Sun Cluster 3.2 Update 2

SUNWscucm 3.2.0

125509-10
125515-05
125993-04
126048-11
126096-04
126107-33

Note: You do not require Sun Cluster to install Oracle Clusterware.

If you use a volume manager, then you may need to install additional kernel packages.

Cluster File System

Shared QFS 4.6

SC3.2 U1 (2/08)

Note: You do not require QFS to install Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC.

Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with the following software:

IBM MQSeries V6.6.0, client and server

Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK)

Sun Studio 12 September 2007 Release

Additional patches may be needed depending on applications you deploy. Contact Sun for additional information.

Download Sun Studio from the following URL:

http://developers.sun.com/sunstudio/index.jsp

Oracle ODBC Driver

gcc 3.4.2

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) packages are only needed if you plan on using ODBC. If you do not plan to use ODBC, then you do not need to install the ODBC RPMs for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, or Oracle RAC.

Programming languages for Oracle RAC database

  • Pro*COBOL

    Micro Focus Cobol 5.0

  • Pro*FORTRAN

    Sun ONE Studio 11 (Fortran 95)

Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers

You can use the following optional JDK versions with the Oracle JDBC/OCI drivers, however they are not required for the installation:

  • JDK 6 Update 10 (Java SE Development Kit 1.6 u10)

  • JDK 5 (1.5.0_16)

Note: JDK 1.5.0 is installed with this release.


2.8 Checking the Software Requirements

To ensure that the system meets these requirements, follow these steps:

  1. To determine which version of Solaris is installed, enter the following command:

    # uname -r
    5.10
    

    In this example, the version shown is Solaris 10 (5.10). If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about upgrading the operating system.

  2. To determine if the required packages are installed, enter a command similar to the following:

    # pkginfo -i SUNWarc SUNWbtool SUNWhea SUNWlibC SUNWlibm SUNWlibms SUNWsprot \
     SUNWtoo SUNWi1of SUNWi1cs SUNWi15cs SUNWxwfnt SUNWcsl
    

    If a package that is required for your system architecture is not installed, then install it. Refer to your operating system or software documentation for information about installing packages.

Note:

There may be more recent versions of packages listed installed on the system. If a listed patch is not installed, then determine if a more recent version is installed before installing the version listed.

2.9 Verifying Operating System Patches

Note:

Your system may have more recent versions of the listed patches installed on it. If a listed patch is not installed, then determine if a more recent version is installed before installing the version listed.

Select the table for your system architecture and verify that you have required patches.

To ensure that the system meets these requirements:

  1. To determine whether an operating system patch is installed, and whether it is the correct version of the patch, enter a command similar to the following:

    # /usr/sbin/patchadd -p | grep patch_number
    

    For example, to determine if any version of the 119963 patch is installed, use the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/patchadd -p | grep 119963
    

    If an operating system patch is not installed, then download it from the following Web site and install it:

    http://sunsolve.sun.com
    

If you have registered your system with Sun Connection, then you can use Sun Connection to check and update patches.

2.10 Running the Rootpre.sh Script on x86-64 with Sun Cluster

On x86-64 platforms running Solaris, if you install Sun Cluster in addition to Oracle Clusterware, then complete the following task:

  1. Switch user to root:

    $ su - root
    
  2. Complete one of the following steps, depending on the location of the installation

    • If the installation files are on a DVD, then enter a command similar to the following, where mountpoint is the disk mount point directory or the path of the database directory on the DVD:

      # mountpoint/clusterware/rootpre/rootpre.sh
      
    • If the installation files are on the hard disk, change directory to the directory /Disk1 and enter the following command:

      # ./rootpre.sh
      
  3. Exit from the root account:

    # exit
    
  4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 on all nodes of the cluster.

2.11 Network Time Protocol Setting

Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) requires time synchronization across all nodes within a cluster when Oracle RAC is deployed. You have two options for time synchronization: an operating system configured network time protocol (NTP), or Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service. Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service is designed for organizations whose cluster servers are unable to access NTP services. If you use NTP, then the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization daemon (ctssd) starts up in observer mode. If you do not have NTP daemons, then ctssd starts up in active mode and synchronizes time among cluster members without contacting an external time server.

Note:

Before starting the installation of the grid infrastructure, Oracle recommends that you ensure the clocks on all nodes are set to the same time.

If you have NTP daemons on your server but you cannot configure them to synchronize time with a time server, and you want to use Cluster Time Synchronization Service to provide synchronization service in the cluster, then deactivate and deinstall the Network Time Protocol (NTP).

To disable the NTP service, run the following command as the root user

# /usr/sbin/svcadm disable ntp

When the installer finds that the NTP protocol is not active, the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is installed in active mode and synchronizes the time across the nodes. IF NTP is found configured, then the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is started in observer mode, and no active time synchronization is performed by Oracle Clusterware within the cluster.

To confirm that ctssd is active after installation, enter the following command as the Grid installation owner:

$ crsctl check ctss

If you are using NTP, and you prefer to continue using it instead of Cluster Time Synchronization Service, then you need to modify the NTP initialization file to enable slewing, which prevents time from being adjusted backward. Restart the network time protocol daemon after you complete this task.

To do this on Solaris, edit the /etc/inet/ntp.conf file to add "slewalways yes" and "disable pll" to the file. After you make these changes, restart xntpd using the command /usr/sbin/svcadm restart ntp.

To enable XNTP after it has been disabled, enter the following command:

# /usr/sbin/svcadm enable ntp

2.12 Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)

Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) provides a set of common interfaces to computer hardware and firmware that system administrators can use to monitor system health and manage the system. With Oracle 11g release 2, Oracle Clusterware can integrate IPMI to provide failure isolation support and to ensure cluster integrity.

You can configure node-termination with IPMI during installation by selecting a node-termination protocol, such as IPMI. You can also configure IPMI after installation with crsctl commands.

This section contains the following topics:

See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about how to configure IPMI after installation

2.12.1 Requirements for Enabling IPMI

You must have the following hardware and software configured to enable cluster nodes to be managed with IPMI:

  • Each cluster member node requires a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) running firmware compatible with IPMI version 1.5 or greater, which supports IPMI over LANs, and configured for remote control using LAN.

  • Each cluster member node requires an IPMI driver installed on each node.

  • The cluster requires a management network for IPMI. This can be a shared network, but Oracle recommends that you configure a dedicated network.

  • Each cluster member node's Ethernet port used by BMC must be connected to the IPMI management network.

  • Each cluster member must be connected to the management network.

  • Some server platforms put their network interfaces into a power saving mode when they are powered off. In this case, they may operate only at a lower link speed (for example, 100 MB, instead of 1 GB). For these platforms, the network switch port to which the BMC is connected must be able to auto-negotiate down to the lower speed, or IPMI will not function properly.

  • Install and configure IPMI firmware patches as described in Section 2.12.1.1, "IPMI Firmware Patches."

2.12.1.1 IPMI Firmware Patches

Sun has provided patch-level information for IPMI firmware. Obtain the patch version needed for your firmware from http://sunsolve.sun.com and install on each cluster member node:

  • Sun Blade T6340 Server Module Sun System Firmware with LDOMS support

    139448-03

  • SPARC Enterprise T5440 Sun System Firmware with LDOMS support

    139446-03

  • Netra T5440 Sun System Firmware with LDOMS support

    139445-04

  • SPARC Enterprise T5140 & T5240 Sun System Firmware LDOMS

    139444-03

  • Netra T5220 Sun System Firmware with LDOMS support

    139442-06

  • Sun Blade T6320 + T6320-G2 Server Module Sun System Firmware with LDOMS support

    139440-04

  • SPARC Enterprise T5120 & T5220 Sun System Firmware with LDOMS support

    139439-04

2.12.2 Configuring the IPMI Management Network

You can configure the BMC for static IP addresses.

Note:

If you configure IPMI, and you use Grid Naming Service (GNS) you still must configure separate addresses for the IPMI interfaces. As the IPMI adapter is not seen directly by the host, the IPMI adapter is not visible to GNS as an address on the host.

2.12.3 Configuring the IPMI Driver

Most Solaris platforms include support for IPMI over LAN in the Integrated Lights Out Manager (ILOM service processor (SP), and Solaris comes with the BMC, which is associated with the device special file /dev/bmc. Review the following IPMI sections:

Note:

Problems in the initial revisions of Solaris software and firmware prevented IPMI support from working properly. Ensure you have the latest firmware for your platform and the following Solaris patches (or later versions), available from http://sunsolve.sun.com:
  • 137585-05 IPMItool patch

  • 137594-02 BMC driver patch

Oracle does not currently support the drivers directly, so Oracle supports using IPMI to terminate nodes only with static IP address assignment to the BMC.

2.12.3.1 Configuring the BMC

Configure BMC on each node for remote control using LAN for IPMI-based node fencing to function properly.

Refer to the documentation for the configuration option you select for details about configuring the BMC.

When you configure the BMC on each node, you must complete the following

  • Enable IPMI over LAN, so that the BMC can be controlled over the management network.

  • Configure a static IP address for the BMC.

  • Establish an administrator user account and password for the BMC

  • Configure the BMC for VLAN tags, if you will use the BMC on a tagged VLAN.

The configuration tool you use does not matter, but these conditions must be met for the BMC to function properly.

2.12.3.1.1 Configuring IPMI in the ILOM Processor on Solaris

When you log in to the ILOM web interface, configure parameters to enable IPMI using the following procedures:

  1. Click Configuration, then System Management Access, then IPMI. Click Enabled to enable IPMI over LAN.

  2. Click Configuration, then Network. Enter information for the IP address, the netmask, and the default gateway.

  3. Click User Management, then User Account Settings. Add the IPMI administrator account username and password, and set the role to Administrator.

2.12.3.1.2 Example of BMC Configuration Using IPMItool

The utility ipmitool is provided as part of the Solaris distribution. You can use ipmitool to configure IPMI parameters, but be aware that setting parameters using ipmitool also sets the corresponding parameters for the service processor.

The following is an example of configuring BMC using ipmitool (version 1.8.6).

  1. Log in as root.

  2. Verify that ipmitool can communicate with the BMC using the IPMI driver by using the command bmc info, and looking for a device ID in the output. For example:

    # ipmitool bmc info
    Device ID                 : 32
    .
    .
    .
    

    If ipmitool is not communicating with the BMC, then review the section "Configuring the BMC" and ensure that the IPMI driver is running.

  3. Enable IPMI over LAN using the following procedure

    1. Determine the channel number for the channel used for IPMI over LAN. Beginning with channel 1, run the following command until you find the channel that displays LAN attributes (for example, the IP address):

      # ipmitool lan print 1
       
      . . . 
      IP Address Source       : 0x01
      IP Address              : 140.87.155.89
      . . .
      
    2. Turn on LAN access for the channel found. For example, where the channel is 1:

      # ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 access on
      
  4. Configure IP address settings for IPMI using the static IP addressing procedure:

    • Using static IP Addressing

      If the BMC shares a network connection with ILOM, then the IP address must be on the same subnet. You must set not only the IP address, but also the proper values for netmask, and the default gateway. For example, assuming the channel is 1:

      # ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 ipaddr 192.168.0.55
      # ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 netmask 255.255.255.0
      # ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 defgw ipaddr 192.168.0.1
      

      Note that the specified address (192.168.0.55) will be associated only with the BMC, and will not respond to normal pings.

  5. Establish an administration account with a username and password, using the following procedure (assuming the channel is 1):

    1. Set BMC to require password authentication for ADMIN access over LAN. For example:

      # ipmitool -I bmc lan set 1 auth ADMIN MD5,PASSWORD
      
    2. List the account slots on the BMC, and identify an unused slot (a User ID with an empty user name field). For example:

      # ipmitool channel getaccess 1
      . . . 
      User ID              : 4
      User Name            :
      Fixed Name           : No
      Access Available     : call-in / callback
      Link Authentication  : disabled
      IPMI Messaging       : disabled
      Privilege Level      : NO ACCESS
      . . .
      
    3. Assign the desired administrator user name and password and enable messaging for the identified slot. (Note that for IPMI v1.5 the user name and password can be at most 16 characters). Also, set the privilege level for that slot when accessed over LAN (channel 1) to ADMIN (level 4). For example, where username is the administrative user name, and password is the password:

      # ipmitool user set name 4 username
      # ipmitool user set password 4 password
      # ipmitool user enable 4
      # ipmitool channel setaccess 1 4 privilege=4
      # ipmitool channel setaccess 1 4 link=on
      # ipmitool channel setaccess 1 4 ipmi=on
      
    4. Verify the setup using the command lan print 1. The output should appear similar to the following. Note that the items in bold text are the settings made in the preceding configuration steps, and comments or alternative options are indicated within brackets []:

      # ipmitool lan print 1
      Set in Progress         : Set Complete
      Auth Type Support       : NONE MD2 MD5 PASSWORD
      Auth Type Enable        : Callback : MD2 MD5
                              : User     : MD2 MD5
                              : Operator : MD2 MD5
                              : Admin    : MD5 PASSWORD
                              : OEM      : MD2 MD5
      IP Address Source       : DHCP Address [or Static Address]
      IP Address              : 192.168.0.55
      Subnet Mask             : 255.255.255.0
      MAC Address             : 00:14:22:23:fa:f9
      SNMP Community String   : public
      IP Header               : TTL=0x40 Flags=0x40 Precedence=… 
      Default Gateway IP      : 192.168.0.1
      Default Gateway MAC     : 00:00:00:00:00:00
      .
      .
      .
      # ipmitool channel getaccess 1 4
      Maximum User IDs     : 10
      Enabled User IDs     : 2
       
      User ID              : 4
      User Name            : username [This is the administration user]
      Fixed Name           : No
      Access Available     : call-in / callback
      Link Authentication  : enabled
      IPMI Messaging       : enabled
      Privilege Level      : ADMINISTRATOR
      
  6. Verify that the BMC is accessible and controllable from a remote node in your cluster using the bmc info command. For example, if node2-ipmi is the network hostname assigned the IP address of node2's BMC, then to verify the BMC on node node2 from node1, with the administrator account username, enter the following command on node1:

    $ ipmitool -H node2-ipmi -U username lan print 1
    

    You are prompted for a password. Provide the IPMI password.

    If the BMC is correctly configured, then you should see information about the BMC on the remote node. If you see an error message, such as Error: Unable to establish LAN session, then you must check the BMC configuration on the remote node.

  7. Repeat this process for each cluster member node.

  8. After installation, configure IPMI as described in Section 5.2.2, "Configure IPMI-based Failure Isolation Using Crsctl."

2.13 Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation

To install Oracle software, Secure Shell (SSH) connectivity must be set up between all cluster member nodes. OUI uses the ssh and scp commands during installation to run remote commands on and copy files to the other cluster nodes. You must configure SSH so that these commands do not prompt for a password.

Note:

SSH is used by Oracle configuration assistants for configuration operations from local to remote nodes. It is also used by Enterprise Manager.

You can configure SSH from the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) interface during installation for the user account running the installation. The automatic configuration creates passwordless SSH connectivity between all cluster member nodes. Oracle recommends that you use the automatic procedure if possible.

To enable the script to run, you must remove stty commands from the profiles of any Oracle software installation owners, and remove other security measures that are triggered during a login, and that generate messages to the terminal. These messages, mail checks, and other displays prevent Oracle software installation owners from using the SSH configuration script that is built into the Oracle Universal Installer. If they are not disabled, then SSH must be configured manually before an installation can be run.

See Also:

"Preventing Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands" for information about how to remove stty commands in user profiles

2.14 Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments

You run the installer software with the Oracle grid infrastructure installation owner user account (oracle or grid). However, before you start the installer, you must configure the environment of the installation owner user account. Also, create other required Oracle software owners, if needed.

This section contains the following topics:

2.14.1 Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Owner

You must make the following changes to configure the Oracle grid infrastructure software owner environment:

  • Set the installation software owner user (grid, oracle) default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.

  • Set the software owner's environment variable DISPLAY environment variables in preparation for the Oracle grid infrastructure installation

2.14.2 Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments

To set the Oracle software owners' environments, follow these steps, for each software owner (grid, oracle):

  1. Start a new terminal session; for example, start an X terminal (xterm).

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system:

    $ xhost + hostname
    

    The hostname is the name of the local host.

  3. If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the software, then log in to that system as the software owner user.

  4. If you are not logged in as the user, then switch to the software owner user you are configuring. For example, with the grid user:

    $ su - grid
    
  5. To determine the default shell for the user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
    
  6. Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:

    • Bash shell (bash):

      $ vi .bash_profile
      
    • Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):

      $ vi .profile
      
    • C shell (csh or tcsh):

      % vi .login
      
  7. Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode creation mask:

    umask 022
    
  8. If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variables are set in the file, then remove these lines from the file.

  9. Save the file, and exit from the text editor.

  10. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:

    • Bash shell:

      $ . ./.bash_profile
      
    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ . ./.profile
      
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
      
  11. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a command similar to the following to direct X applications to display on the local system:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ DISPLAY=local_host:0.0 ; export DISPLAY
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
      

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system (your workstation, or another client) on which you want to display the installer.

  12. If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free space, then identify a file system with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TEMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:

    Note:

    You cannot use a shared file system as the location of the temporary file directory (typically /tmp) for Oracle RAC installation. If you place /tmp on a shared file system, then the installation fails.
    1. Use the df -h command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free space.

    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      $ su - root
      # mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/tmp
      # exit
      
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TEMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

        $ TEMP=/mount_point/tmp
        $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
        $ export TEMP TMPDIR
        
      • C shell:

        % setenv TEMP /mount_point/tmp
        % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
        
  13. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following commands:

    $ umask
    $ env | more
    

    Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.

2.14.3 Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration

If you are on a remote terminal, and the local node has only one visual (which is typical), then use the following syntax to set the DISPLAY environment variable:

Bourne, Korn, and Bash shells

$ export DISPLAY=hostname:0

C shell:

$ setenv DISPLAY hostname:0

For example, if you are using the Bash shell, and if your hostname is node1, then enter the following command:

$ export DISPLAY=node1:0

To ensure that X11 forwarding will not cause the installation to fail, create a user-level SSH client configuration file for the Oracle software owner user, as follows:

  1. Using any text editor, edit or create the software installation owner's ~/.ssh/config file.

  2. Make sure that the ForwardX11 attribute is set to no. For example:

    Host *
          ForwardX11 no
    

2.14.4 Preventing Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands

During an Oracle grid infrastructure installation, OUI uses SSH to run commands and copy files to the other nodes. During the installation, hidden files on the system (for example, .bashrc or .cshrc) will cause makefile and other installation errors if they contain stty commands.

To avoid this problem, you must modify these files in each Oracle installation owner user home directory to suppress all output on STDERR, as in the following examples:

  • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

    if [ -t 0 ]; then
       stty intr ^C
    fi
    
  • C shell:

    test -t 0
    if ($status == 0) then
       stty intr ^C
    endif
    

    Note:

    When SSH is not available, the Installer uses the rsh and rcp commands instead of ssh and scp.

    If there are hidden files that contain stty commands that are loaded by the remote shell, then OUI indicates an error and stops the installation.

2.15 Requirements for Creating an Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Directory

During installation, you are prompted to provide a path to a home directory to store Oracle grid infrastructure software. Ensure that the directory path you provide meets the following requirements:

For installations with Oracle grid infrastructure only, Oracle recommends that you create a path compliant with Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines, so that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) can select that directory during installation. For OUI to recognize the path as an Oracle software path, it must be in the form u0[1-9]/app.

When OUI finds an OFA-compliant path, it creates the Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle Inventory (oraInventory) directories for you.

To create an Oracle grid infrastructure path manually, ensure that it is in a separate path, not under an existing Oracle base path. For example:

# mkdir -p  /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
# chown grid:oinstall /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid

With this path, if the installation owner is named grid, then by default OUI creates the following path for the grid home:

/u01/app/11.2.0/grid

Create an Oracle base path for database installations, owned by the Oracle Database installation owner account. The OFA path for an Oracle base is /u01/app/user, where user is the name of the Oracle software installation owner account. For example, use the following commands to create an Oracle base for the database installation owner account oracle:

# mkdir -p  /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle

Note:

If you choose to create an Oracle grid infrastructure home manually, then do not create the Oracle grid infrastructure home for a cluster under either the grid installation owner Oracle base or the Oracle Database installation owner Oracle base. Creating an Oracle Clusterware installation in an Oracle base directory will cause succeeding Oracle installations to fail.

Oracle grid infrastructure homes can be placed in a local home on servers, even if your existing Oracle Clusterware home from a prior release is in a shared location.

Homes for Oracle grid infrastructure for a standalone server (Oracle Restart) can be under Oracle base. Refer to Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform for more information about Oracle Restart.

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